Someone has asked what the difference between an objective and target is. A lot of people think there isn't any difference, but there is, and it is important to understand it because objectives and targets are a powerful tool for demonstrating continual improvement.
Both of these terms are specifically defined in the standard in Section 3 (Terms and Definitions) 3.9 and 3.11, which means they don't want you to use the dictionary version. Although the standard writers probably thought they made it crystal clear, you are not alone in asking: "What the #$!@" do they mean?"
A common explanation is that an objective is an overall goal or "umbrella" description of a goal whereas the target is more specific and must be met as part of the larger goal.
...zzzhnh Wha...?? Whoa - I just fell asleep typing that!!!
This reminds me of something mildly hilarious: When asked why the ISO 14001 standard wasn't written more clearly, my instructor answered that it was difficult even for college undergraduates to understand because it was written very elegantly to the "17th-grade level." Folks, I can't make up stuff this ridiculous.
Although mere baccalaureates (I mean, 16th graders) cannot reasonably be expected to attain this lofty reading comprehension level, the concept of objectives and targets could easily be explained to a tipsy barfly with a beer in one hand and a crooked plastic dart in the other.
Think of the type of dart game (301, cricket) as the "objective," and the various numbers on the dartboard, including the bullseye, as the "targets." In the game, hitting individual targets measures progress toward reaching the overall goal: winning. Without both the objective and the targets defined, you might as well throw darts at anything or anyone, which I think we can all agree would not clearly demonstrate continual improvement, even if they were thrown by someone with a PhD.
The standard requires programs be defined to achieve objectives and targets. So I'll take this example one step further (too far?) and define a "program": the barfly (responsibility) must use the darts (means) to finish the game before he passes out (timeframe).
And just because I can, I'm going to go over the proverbial cliff with this example: In 4.5.1, the standard requires calibrated/verified equipment to monitor objectives and targets. This is because the data must be not only accurate, but consistent, reliable and repeatable. So, to return to the example: if the "equipment" is a drunk person using worn out bar darts, I wouldn't bet on a winning streak. In other words, "GIGO" applies.
There are lots of myths about how objectives must be set and what they must include. For more information on objectives and targets, see the following COIs: (click on the link under "Faves," or if you don't know what COIs are, click here)